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氨氮胁迫下凡纳滨对虾运动行为与能量分配模式变化 [中文引用][英文引用]

Effects of ammonia-nitrogen on locomotor performance and the energy budget of Litopenaeus vannamei

作者(英文):ZENG Qingting1  YU Henan1 2  LIN Xiaotao1  XU Zhongneng1 
分类号:S966
出版年·卷·期(页码):2016·23·第1期(198-206)
DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1118.2016.15135
-----摘要:-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

为研究氨氮胁迫下凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)行为和能量分配的变化,将体质量为(4.89±0.27) g的凡纳滨对虾幼虾分别置于氨氮质量浓度为0.02 mg/L (对照)、1.00 mg/L、2.50 mg/L、5.00 mg/L,水温(28±0.5)℃的水族箱中养殖2周,监测其行为并对其生长、体组分和能量收支进行测定。结果表明,随氨氮浓度升高,凡纳滨对虾白昼的活动频率、游走距离呈先升后降趋势,而夜间则呈逐渐下降趋势, 5.00 mg/L组白昼和夜间活动频率及游走距离均显著低于对照组(P < 0.05);特定生长率及摄食率均呈逐渐下降趋势,处理组显著低于对照组(P < 0.05); 2.50 mg/L和5.00 mg/L组的凡纳滨对虾脂肪含量和能值均显著低于对照组(P < 0.05);各处理组摄食能量分配于生长的比例随着氨氮浓度的增大而降低,而消耗于代谢的比例随氨氮浓度增大而升高,与对照组相比, 5.00 mg/L组的摄食能用于生长比例下降4.57%,用于代谢消耗的比例上升5.70%。上述结果表明,氨氮胁迫下凡纳滨对虾的夜间活动水平明显下降,摄食量减少,能量利用效率降低,生长速度减慢。

-----英文摘要:---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Excess ammonia-nitrogen (ammonia-N) in the aquaculture environment destroys the shrimp excretory system and osmotic balance; thus, affecting health and growth. The behavioral responses that often accompany internal physiological changes are a reaction to environmental stress. Therefore, behavioral observations combined with physiological measurements provide a more complete understanding of the homeostatic perturbations of shrimp from external or internal stressors. The effects of ammonia-N on growth, body composition, and immunity of shrimp have been studied extensively, but the effects on locomotor behavior and energy allocation are not known. We investigated the effects of ammonia-N on locomotor behavior and energy metabolism of Litopenaeus vannamei, a commercially important shrimp species, to provide useful information for shrimp health and regulation of the aquaculture environment. Shrimp (weight, 4.89 ± 0.27 g) were exposed to four ammonia-N concentrations of 0.02 (control), 1.00, 2.50, and 5.00 mg/L in aquaria for 2 weeks at a water temperature of (28 ± 0.5)℃. The locomotor behaviors of L. vannamei were recorded by cameras, and energy budgets were determined. Video of each aquarium was recorded for 30 min at 8: 00, 12: 00, and 16: 00 during the daytime and at 21: 00, 24: 00, and 3: 00 during the night and analyzed to calculate movement frequency and locomotion distance of shrimp in each experimental group. Feeding, growth, body composition, and defecation were measured to calculate energy budgets. The results showed that frequency of movement and locomotion distance increased initially and then decreased during the day, but decreased at night as ammonia-N concentration increased. Movement frequency and locomotion distance of shrimp in the 5.00 mg/L ammonia-N concentration were significantly lower than those of the controls, regardless of time (P < 0.05). Specific growth rate, feeding rate, and food conversion efficiency of L. vannamei decreased significantly as ammonia-N concentration increased, and all shrimp exposed to ammonia-N had significantly lower values for these variables than those of the control (P < 0.05). Crude lipid and energy contents in shrimp exposed to 2.50 mg/L and 5.00 mg/L ammonia-N were significantly higher than those of the controls (P < 0.05). Less energy was allocated to growth as ammonia-N concentration increased, whereas that for metabolism increased. Energy for growth in shrimp exposed to 1.00, 2.50, and 5.00 mg/L ammonia-N dropped 2.48%, 2.19%, and 4.57%, respectively, whereas that for metabolism rose 1.32%, 1.69%, and 5.70%, respectively, compared with the controls. These findings indicate that L. vannamei reduced food intake under ammonia-N stress, decreased locomotor behavior to adjust energy allocation to reduce energy consumption, and allocated more energy to basic physiological metabolism, resulting in decreased energy utilization efficiency and inhibited growth. This study provides a mechanism for energy allocation in L. vannamei under ammonia-N stress and shows the behavioral responses of the shrimp to ammonia-N stress, which will contribute to producing healthy shrimp and monitoring water quality using animal behavior.

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若需在您的论文中引用此文,请按以下格式著录参考文献:
中文著录格式: 曾庆婷1,,于赫男1,2,,林小涛1,,许忠能1.氨氮胁迫下凡纳滨对虾运动行为与能量分配模式变化.中国水产科学.2016;23(1):198-206.
英文著录格式: ZENG,Qingting1,,YU,Henan1,2,,LIN,Xiaotao1,,XU,Zhongneng1.Effects of ammonia-nitrogen on locomotor performance and the energy budget of Litopenaeus vannamei.No Title Settings.2016;23(1):198-206.

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